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Sunflower Hybrid Seeds

By | kilimo | No Comments

We believe agriculture has a great opportunity to stimulate sustainable development in the country, now, we learn about performance, quality and benefits of new sunflower hybrid seeds.

Agricultural sector has improved its contribution to GDP up to 30.1 percent in 2017 compared to 29.2 percent in 2016. Agricultural produce are the most important raw materials into current industrial agenda since it contributes up to 65 percent of raw materials needed in processing industries.

Sunflower is one of the most important oil producing products, sunflower seeds that provide quality cooking oil, guaranteed income and cake that is used in production of animal feeds. It is good for people to be healthy by consuming sunflower cooking oil to avoiding diseases while raising farmers’ income in the country.

Production of sunflower seeds has grown from about 3.1 million tons in 2016/17 to about 3.2 million tons in 2017/18, with expected growth of sunflower production up to 3.3 million tons in 2018/2019, an average of about 100,000 tons per year

Government aims to promote sunflower production from 3,112,500 tons in 2016/2017 to 9,337,500 tons by 2021/22 and increase production from 1.5 tons per hectare to 3 tons.

To achieve this, some key constraints which were holding back the development of this sub-sector such as continued use of poor seeds and unavailability of other key farming services need to be unlocked.

The following are some of characteristics of improved seeds or hybrid seeds;

  1. New hybrid seeds are tolerant to inadequate rains,
  2. Can be planted on all type of soil,
  3. Have high oil content ,
  4. Enough sunflower cake and
  5. It ensures smallholder farmers with maximum production and productivity, however they can’t be re-planted.

Sunflower sub-sector can stimulate the establishment of small scale industries or factories for processing sunflower seeds in various areas.

With over 800 small, medium and large sunflower processing factories, they have a total capacity of processing 3,000 metric tons of seeds per day, but they can hardly get 500 Metric tons. At the moment, they produce 210,000 metric tons of sunflower oil per year but their goal is to produce 420,000 tons per year, this production deficit is a great opportunity for sunflower farmers.

Established by the Governments of Denmark, Ireland and Sweden, Agricultural Markets Development Trust (AMDT) aims to stimulate the private sector to invest in supplying improved seed varieties, while also encouraging the public sector through responsible research institutes to invest in developing the breeding capacity for new Hybrid seed varieties in the longer term.

Currently, the majority of farmers use the so called open-pollinated (OPV) seed varieties, which have been around for a long time, thereby losing their original production potential and other important seeds characteristics.

However, as a nice market, sunflower can be produced with principles of organic farming which is sustainable, environmental friendly and doesn’t have too many production costs. A good example is in Bahi district in Dodoma, where there are many sunflower organic farmers and they expect abundant yields and an assured market this season.

Higher oil content present in sunflower hybrid seeds will benefit processors because of oil percentage comparing to production of other traditional seeds variety. Processors are willing to offer best prices for farmers who use new hybrid seeds, this will lead to improving of the sunflower farmers’ lives.

It’s important to promote and ensuring small producers have access to new hybrid seeds especially in areas with high sunflower production like Dodoma, Singida, Rukwa, Mtwara and Songwe, Iringa, Manyara and Rukwa

Public and private partnerships is crucial in ensuring sustainable agricultural market systems develop, various agricultural  stakeholders, government, private sector and development partners strive to make sure that there are up to 6 type of hybrid seeds in market by 2021, this will address the issue of seeds availability and its access by small farmers at affordable prices. .

Smallholder farmers are advised to be more aware of not only the good farming methods, but also the best practices for post-harvest handling techniques such as proper drying up to 8 percent moisture, since not properly dried seeds may affect final oil extracted.

Youth are encouraged to grab numerous of opportunities present in this sub-sector, by forming economic groups to have one voice and take advantage of collective selling and bulk input and service and buying.

Success stories from Sunflower farmers

“Before the introduction of sunflower farming, we used to cultivate sesame, groundnuts, maize, cassava etc. Passion about sunflower farming came due to knowledge and experience I received through village demo plot, As a lead farmer, I started farming and motivated others to engage in sunflower farming because it was unpopular crop here in Masasi. I planted NSFH 36 hybrid seeds on 2-5 March 2018, weeding was done after 2 weeks and today, the 23rd May 2018, sunflower is  ready for harvest, it’s almost 80 days only, this is great experience for me” said Rajabu, 58

“Before the introduction of sunflower, we used to be idle in March to May every year because during that time we would be done with cashewnut season. Now, we are busy with sunflower farming because sunflower sector has potential for growth in here, Profit gained will be used to expand my farm size under sunflower, pay school fees and to carter for other family matters.” Said Rajabu ,58

“NSFH seed is drought tolerant with guaranteed maximum production, My fellow farmers whom we planted together, they are yet to harvest sunflower, but I have already harvested, processed and I have reaped fruits of my work. Previously, I used to harvest 1 bag in 1 acre, but this season,I got 12 bags in 1 acre because  I planted new hybrid seeds, I must thank my cooperative Tuungane High Class group, for enabling the demo plot where we have increased knowledge on hybrid seeds, Hybrid seeds can’t be compared to our local seeds, the new seeds  have big heads similar to a big food plate, and upon planting their  germination is over 90%” said Riziki, mother of 4 children

“After harvesting, I went to process sunflower seeds eager to see what volume of oil I would get, I travelled to Makambako town (50 kilometers) to process seeds due to presence of quality machines ,I was very happy to get 17 gallons (20litres each) and sold them all right there for Tsh 70,000 each gallon. I walked away with Tsh 1.2 Million, we have agreed with my husband to use the money to pay school fees for our 4 children” said Riziki

“My advice to fellow youth is to enter into sunflower farming, Agribusiness is one of the solutions to unemployment more youth should engage with farming rather than staying idle, you can practice sunflower farming and be able to earn income. If I can do farming, I don’t see why fellow youth especially female youth should hesitate to engage with sunflower farming” said Rose, 21

“Last season, I planted more than 3 acres and got 4 bags because of local seeds used but I have seen this new hybrid seeds’ performance at our demo plot which is totally different to local seeds in terms of early maturity, drought resistance and yields. I expect next season to plant new hybrid seeds in 5 acres where yields will reach more than 50 bags, this will boost my earnings as a youth” said Pascal,20

Insurance services

“At present, we provide crop insurance on sunflower farming in Iringa, Njombe, Singida, Dodoma and Mbeya regions. Insurance is crucial because farmers are seriously affected by drought, pests, floods and other crop diseases which all these are risks to crop production, So, through working with insurance, farmers are confident to be covered for the invested capital, Consequently, smallholder farmers will be able to pay for insurance because they will have disposable income” said Priscilla, agriculture insurer

Soil testing

“AYEGRO will conduct soil testing in Singida and Dodoma regions, we will test and recommend farmers about soil condition of their farms to embark sunflower farming with business mind where productivity matters. In ensuring our business is sustained, we have planned to open new office in Singida in order to be closer to farmers . Also, as we reach more farmers, costs for soil test will be reduced by 30% , so that farmers can afford these important services, The increasing demand for soil testing is assuring us a sustainable environment for healthy business between AYEGRO and farmers  who are our main customers” said Peter

Seed distributor

“To ensuring sustainable business, we plan to reach more farmers through local agents or agro-dealers present closer to farmers in order for seeds to reach farmers all the time with affordable prices, We will increase consignment of seeds to be distributed on reaching more farmers in several areas. We are committed to serve farmers through local agents and increase supply of seeds in order for farmers to get good yields, this will ensure the flourishing of our business while continuing motivating farmers to plant new sunflower hybrid seeds, Seed distribution channels will be improved in ensuring good seed prices and reaching farmers in remote areas timely” said David, seed supplier

By | Horticulture, kilimo | No Comments
KILIMO CHA ZAO LA KABICHI

UTANGULIZI:
Zao la kabichi hulimwa katika mikoa ya Morogoro, Arusha,Tanga, Iringa, Kilimanjaro na Mbeya. Kama mboga zao la kabichi lina viini lishe kama chokaa, protini, kambakamba na maji kwa wingi. Hutumika kutengeneza kachumbari, pia kuchanganywa na nyama au maharage. II.HALI YA HEWA Zao la kabichi hupendelea:- – hali ya ubaridi Mwinuko: Kuanzia mita 1200 hadi 1900 kutoka usawa wa bahari. Udongo: – – Tifutifu – Rutuba nyingi na – Unaohifadhi unyevu kwa muda mrefu – Usiotuamisha maji – Usio na chumvichumvi nyingi. – Kama hauna rutuba ya kutosha ongeza mbolea ya samadi au mbolea vunde. III. AINA ZA KABICHI • Early Jersey Wakefield: – Umbo lilochongoka kidogo, – Hufunga vizuri, – Uzito ni kati ya kilo 1.5 hadi 2.0, – Hukomaa mapema siku 90 – 100 tangu kupandikiza. • Copenhagen Market: – Vichwa vya mviringo na hupasuka kirahisi – Hukomaa mapema, siku 90 – 100 tangu kupandikiza • Prize Drumhead: – Vichwa vikubwa (kilo 2- 2.5), – Vichwa ni bapa, huchelewa kukomaa (siku 110 – 120) – Huvumulia hali ya jua kali, – Pia vichwa hupasuka. • Oxheart: – Vichwa vidogo huchongoka kama moyo, – Hupendwa sana na walaji, – Ladha yake ni tamu, hukomaa mapema, – Hazina tabia ya kupasuka. • Glory of Enkhuizen: – Vichwa vya mviringo, – Huvumilia hali ya jua kali, – Huchelewa kukomaa (siku 110 – 120) – Ina tabia ya kupasuka. IV. KUOTESHA MBEGU: Mbegu za kabichi huoteshwa kitaluni na baadaye huhamishiwa shambani. Andaa kitalu vizuri na weka mbolea za asili zilizooza vizuri kwa kiasi cha ndoo 5 – 10 za ujazo wa kilo 20 kwenye eneo la mita za mraba 10. Changanya na udongo kisha lainisha udongo kwa kuvunja mabonge makubwa kwa kutumia reki. Tengeneza tuta lililoinuka kwa sentimita 25 na lenye upana wa mita 1. Mwagilia maji kwenye tuta siku moja kabla ya kusia mbegu. Kiasi cha mbegu zinazohitajika ni gramu 1 kwenye eneo la mita 1 ya mraba hivyo hekta 1 huhitaji gramu 200 – 300. Sia katika umbali wa sentimita 15 toka mstari hadi mstari na kina cha nusu sentimita.Funika mbegu na udongo laini kasha tandaza nyasi kazu ili kuhifadhi unyevu.Mwagilia maji kila siku asubuhi na jioni mpaka mbegu ziote, huota kwa muda wa siku 5 – 10. V.KUTAYARISHA SHAMBA – Shamba litayarishwe mwezi mmoja kabla ya kupandikiza. – Katua ardhi kwa kina cha sentimita 30 – Lainisha udongo na tengeneza matuta – Weka mbolea za asili kwa kiasi cha ndoo 2 kwa kila hatua moja au – Mbolea iwekwe kwa kila shimo kwa kiasi cha kilo kwa shimo. – Mbolea ya N.P.K. 5:15:5 yaweza kuwekwa kwa kiasi cha kijiko 1 cha chai chenye gramu 5 kwa kila shimo. VI.KUPANDIKIZA MICHE Miche huwa tayari kupandikizwa shambani baada ya wiki 3 – 5 tangu kusia mbegu . Miche huwa na urefu wa sentimita 15 – 20. Ng’oa miche kwa uangalifu na pandikiza kama ilivyokuwa kitaluni na hakikisha mizizi haipindi wakati wa kupandikiza. Nafasi ya kupandikiza: Hutegemea aina ya kabichi – zenye vichwa vikubwa (Drumhead) ni sentimita 60 kutoka mche hadi mche na sentimita 75 toka mstari hadi mstari. – Zenye vichwa vidogo (Oxheart) ni sentimita 40 – 50 kutoka mche hadi mche na sentimita 60 toka mstari hadi mstari. – Umbali toka tuta moja na jingine ni sentimita 60. – Muda mzuri wa kuotesha ni asubuhi au jioni – Baada ya kupandikiza weka matandazo kama vile nyasi kavu ili kuhifadhi unyevu na kuzuia magugu kuota kwa urahisi. VII. PALIZI Zao la kabichi halina mizizi ya kina kirefu hivyo wakati wa palizi ni muhimu kuwa mwangalifu kwa kupalilia juu juu ili kuepuka kukata mizizi. Kuongeza matandazo husaidia kupunguza palizi a mara kwa mara.. VIII. UMWAGILIAJI Kabichi hustawi vizuri zaidi iwapo kuna maji ya kutosha kwenye udongo. Mwagilia mara mbili au zaidi kwa wiki kutegemea hali ya hewa na aina ya udongo. Kabichi ambazo hazikupata maji ya kutosha huchelewa kufunga na huwa na vichwa vidogo. Zikikosa maji kwa muda mrefu na zikapata maji mengi ghafla, vichwa hupasuka. IX. MBOLEA – Mbolea ya kukuzia (S/A) huwekwa baada ya 4 – 6 baada ya kupandikiza miche na kabla ya vichwa havijaanza kufunga. – Kiasi cha kilo 80 huhitajika kwa eka moja. – Kilo 40 ziwekwe baada ya wiki 4 – 6 na kilo 40 ziwekwe tena baada ya mwezi mmoja – Mche mmoja huhitaji kiasi cha kidogo cha gramu 5 – Mbolea iwekwe kuzunguka shina umbali wa sentmita 10 – 15 kutoka kwenye shina. Muhimu: Epuka kuweka mbolea nyingi, kwani husababisha vichwa visifunge vizuri (kabichi zinakuwa nyepesi) x. KUBADILISHA MAZAO Kabichi nizao linalotumia virutubisho vingi kulinganisha na mboga nyingine,hivyo kabla ya kuotesha kabichi panda mazao jamii ya mikunde ili kuongeza rutuba. Baada ya kuvuna kabichi otesha mazao yanayotumia chakula kidogo kama vile karoti, radishi au lettuce. Kubadilisha mazao pia hupunguza kuenea kwa wadudu waharibifu na magonjwa. XI. WADUDU WAHARIBIFU • Viwavi wa kabichi: Hawa ni viwavi wenye rangi ya kijani na alama ya mstari wa kung’aa mgongoni. Nondo hutaga mayai chini ya jani na baada ya kuanguliwa viwavi hawa hula sehemu ya chini ya jani na kucha ngozi nyembamba mfano wa dirisha la kioo. Ni muhimu kuwadhibiti viwavi hawa kwa sababu ndio wanaoleta madhara makubwa. Viwavi wa kabichi huzuiwa kwa kunyunyizia moja ya dawa zifuatazo:- Nogos, Permethrin,Dimethoate, Sevin W.P. na Sumicidin. Nzi wa Kabichi: Mashambulizi hufanywa na kiluwiluwi mwenye rangi ya kijani au bluu. Hula majani yote ya kabichi na kubakisha vena au vishipa vya majani. Inzi wa kabichi wanaweza kuzuiwa kwa kutumia dawa za Sevin, Dimethoate, Permethrin na Fenvalerate(sumicidin) Sota: Hawa ni funza wakubwa wenye rangi ya kijivu. Hupendelea kujichimbia katika udongo wakati wa mchana na kukata miche michanga karibu na usawa wa ardhi wakati wa usiku. Zuia wadudu hawa kwa kutumia majivu au dawa kama vile Carbaryl, Fenvalerate au Decis mara baada ya kuotesha. Kama mche utakatwa, mtoe mdudu huyu kwa kumfukua na kumuua. Kisha pandikiza mche mwingine. Vidukari au wadudu mafuta: – Wadudu hawa ni wadogo sana wenye rangi ya kijani, nyeusi au khaki. – Baadhi yao wana mabawa na wengine hawana. – Hufyonza utomvu wa mimea na husababisha majani kubadilika rangi na kuwa meupe au njano iliyopauka. – Mmea hudumaa na hatimaye hukauka. Zuia kwa kunyunyiza mojawapo ya dawa hizi Fenvalerate, Dimethoate, Karate, Nogos. Minyoo Fundo: Ni minyoo wadogo wanaoishi ardhini na ambao hawaonekani kirahisi kwa macho. Hushambulia mizizi na kusababisha kabichi kudhoofu na kushindwa kufunga vizuri. Mimea iliyoshambuliwa, mizizi yake huwa na nundunundu. Kuzuia:- – Matumizi ya mbolea za asili kila msimu husaidia kupunguza kuzaliana kwa wadudu hao. – Tumia mzunguko wa mazao, usiotesha zao la jamii ya kabichi baada ya kuvuna kama vile kabichi ya kichina, koliflawa,n.k Otesha mboga kama vile karoti, radishi, vitunguu au mahindi. – Ondoa masalia yote shambani ambayo yanaweza kueneza wadudu hawa na yachome moto. XII. MAGONJWA: • Kuoza shingo:- – Husababishwa na vidudu vya bacteria ambavyo viko kwenye udongo. – Hushambulia kabichi na kuzifanya zibadilike rangi. – Kuoza na kutoa harufu mbaya. – Vidudu vidovidogo huonekana pia kwenye sehemu iliyooza. Kuzuia:- – Epuka kujeruhi kabichi wakati wa kuvuna – Vuna kabichi wakati hakuna mvua – Usilundike kwa wingi na kwa muda mrefu. – Hifadhi kwenye sehemu yenye ubaridi na hewa ya kutosha. – Ng’oa masalia, choma moto na lima shamba mara moja baada ya kuvuna – Tumia mzunguko wa mazao. • Uozo Mweusi:- – husababishwa na Bakteria – Majani hugeuka kuwa njano na baadaye kuwa kahawia – Majani huanza kunyauka kutoka kwenye kingo zake na kuacha alama ya “V” yenye rangi nyeusi isiyokolea. – Baadaye majani hunyauka na kupukutika – Kama ukikata jani au shina, mviringo mweusi huonekana kwenye vena. Kuzuia:- – Badilisha mazao. Usipande kabichi au jamii yake kwa muda wa miaka 2 kwenye eneo lililoadhirika. – Otesha kabichi kwenye sehemu ambayo haituamishi maji. – Kitalu na mazingira yake viwe safi daima. – Punguza miche ili kupunguza msongamano. – Ondoa masalia yote baada ya kuvuna ya yachomwe moto. – Otesha mbegu zilizodhibitishwa na wataalam. • Kuoza shina:- – Ni ugonjwa waukungu – Madoadoa yaliyodidimia yenye rangi ya kahawia huonekana kwenye shina karibu na usawa wa ardhi, ikifuatiwa na kuvimba kwa shina. – Baadaye uyoga mweusi huonekana kwenye uvimbe huo. – Uozo wa rangi ya kahawia huonekana ndani ya shina. – Majani huwa na madoa meusi ya mviringo yaliyozungukwa na uyoga mweusi. Kuzuia:- – Otesha kabichi sehemu ambayo haituamishi maji – Badilisha mazao, usioteshe kabichi kwenye eneo lililoathirika kwa muda wa miaka 3. – Lima shamba mara baada ya kuvuna ili kuwezesha masalia kuoza haraka kabla ya kuotesha tena. – Ondoa kabichi zote zilizoshambuliwa shambani. – Tumia dawa ya kuzuia ukungu kama vile Ridomil. • Uvimbe wa mizizi:- – Husababishwa na ukungu – Hushambulia mizizi na dalili zake ni kudumaa kwa mmea na majani kukunjamana – Baadae mmea huoza Kuzuia:- Badilisha mazao shambani. • Madoa Meusi:- – Chanzo ni ukungu. – Majani huwa na madoa madogo madogo ya mviringo yenye rangi ya njano . – Baadae madoa huwa makubwa na hugeuka kuwa meusi. Kuzuia:- – Badilisha mazao – Hakikisha shamba ni safi wakati wote – Ikibidi tumia dawa za ukungu kama vile Kocide,Cupro, n.k. • Ubwiri Vinyoya:- – Ni ugonjwa wa ukungu. – Hupendelea hali ya unyevunyevu na baridi kali. – Huanzia kwenye kitalu – Mabaka ya mviringo yenye rangi ya njano huonekana upande wa juu wa jani. – Baadae hubadilika na kuwa rangi ya zambarau iliyochanganyika na nyeupe upande wa chini wa majani. Kuzuia:- – Tumia mzunguko wa mazao. – Hakikisha udongo hautuamishi maji na kitalu ni kisafi wakati wote. – Tumia za ukungu kama Zineb, Didhane, M45, Kocide, Topsin-M na Ridomil. Kuoza shinaau Kinyaushi:- – Husababishwa na ukungu. – Hushambulia miche michanga – Miche iliyoshambuliwa huonyesha dalili za kukauka. – Miche mikubwa huonyesha dalili za kudumaa – Sehemu ya shina iliyo karibu na ardhi hulainika na kuwa rangi ya kahawia. Kuzuia:- -Punguza miche kama imesongamana. -Nyunyiza dawa ya ukungu Kama Didhane M-45, Ridomil, Topsin-M. XIII. KUVUNA Kabichi hukomaa katika siku 60 mpaka 210 tangu kupandikiza miche. Hata hivyo muda wa kukomaa hutegemea ain aya kabichi.Uvunaji hufanyika kwa kukata shina sentimita 2 – 3 kutoka kwenye kichwa kwa kutumia kisu. Ondoa majani ya nje na acha majani 2 au 3 ya kijani kwa ajili ya kuzuia kabichi zisikwaruzike na kuoza wakati wa kusafirisha. Punguza urefu wa majani ili kurahisisha ufungaji. Ni muhimu uvunaji ufanyike asubuhi au jioni. Ondoa kabichi zilizooza au kuharibika wakati wa kuvuna, kisha panga zilizobaki kufuata daraja kama vile ndogo, za kati na kubwa. Mavuno:- Kiasi cha tani 40 au zaidi za kabichi hupatikana kwa hekta moja kama zao limetunzwa vizuri. XIV. HIFADHI Kabichi ni zao linaloharibika kwa haraka, hivyo halina budi kutumika mapema iwezekanavyo baada ya kuvuna. Kabichi kwa ajili ya kuuzwa zisafirishwe mara moja kwa walaji. Kama usafiri ni mgumu, zihifadhiwe kwenye sehemu yenye ubaridi na hewa ya kutosha. Wakati wa kusafirisha, ziwekwe kwenye matenga au visanduku vya mbao vilivyo na matundu yanayoingiza hewa ya kutosha.
kumbuka ujasiria mali ni taaluma uwe tayari kuithamini na kuitendea kazi ili ikuletee mafanikio kwenye maisha yako